Early GEM research (GEM South African Report, 2005 and 2010) indicated that there is a strong relationship between population groups and entrepreneurial activity.

Whites and Indians were more likely to start a business than were coloureds and black Africans. However, subsequent research (GEM South African Report, 2008) showed that this difference did not exist when all races had received post-secondary education.

This clearly illustrates the importance of both good secondary and, in particular, tertiary education.

Very encouraging is that the percentage of black Africans who are involved in opportunity-driven entrepreneurship has been increasing steadily, from 22.9% in 2005 to 58.3% in 2013.

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